Fieldwork Educator Manual
The UND fieldwork educator manual provides an overview of the UND curriculum, the specific policies and procedures relative to level I and II fieldwork and commonly used forms.
Please click on the link below to open the survey. The survey should open in a new tab on your browser to allow you to refer back to the information in question.
- AOTA Fieldwork Education Resources
- Medicare Requirements for Supervision (accessible to AOTA members only)
A number of resources have been developed by the UND OT department to support you in your work with level I and II students. Resources developed will help you develop learning objectives and weekly learning activities, plan for weekly supervision meetings, customize student learning experiences through the use of learning contracts and support clinical reasoning through reflective writing. Additional on-line resources, which include embedded links, address a number of focus areas of importance to fieldwork education.
- Level 1 Mental Health
- Level 1 Physical Disabilities
- Learning Opportunities Physical Disabilities
- Level 1 Pediatrics
Recommended Texts for Occupational Therapy Practice
Asher, I.E. (2007) Occupational therapy assessment tools: An annotated index (3rd Ed.), Bethesda, M.D.: AOTA Press.
Brown, C. (2012) Occupational therapy practice guidelines for adults with serious mental illness, Bethesda, M.D.: AOTA Press
Bazyk, S. (2011) Mental health promotion, prevention, and intervention with children and youth: A guiding framework for occupational therapy, Bethesda, M.D.: AOTA Press
Cole, M.B. & Tufano, R. ( 2008) Applied theories in occupational therapy: A practical approach, Thorofare, N.J.: Slack Inc.
Cole, M. (2005) Group dynamics in occupational therapy: The theoretical basis and practice application of group treatment (3rd Ed.) Thorofare, NJ: Slack, Inc.
Costa, D. (2004) The essential guide to occupational therapy fieldwork education: Resources for today's educators and practitioners, Bethesda, M.D.: AOTA Press.
Costa, D. ( 2005) Clinical Supervision in occupational therapy: A guide for fieldwork and practice, (2nd Ed.) Bethesda, M.D.: AOTA Press.
Cooper, C. (2007) Fundamentals of hand therapy, St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby
Gillen, G. (2009) Cognitive and perceptual rehabilitation: Optimizing function, St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.
Katz, N. (2011) Cognition, occupation and participation across the life span: Neuroscience, neuro-rehabilitation and models for intervention in occupational therapy, (3rd Ed.). Bethesda, M.D.: AOTA Press.
Law, M. & MacDermid, J. (2008) Evidence-based rehabilitation: A guide to practice, Thorofare, NJ: Slack Inc.
Law, M. & McColl, M. (2010) Interventions, effects, and outcomes in occupational therapy, Thorofare, NJ: Slack Inc.
Scheinholtz, M.K. (2010) Occupational therapy in mental health: Considerations for advanced practice, Bethesda, M.D.: AOTA Press.
Traditional, Role-Established or 1:1 Model
The supervisor is the expert; the student mirrors the activities of the supervisor following an apprentice model. The student is directly supervised by one OT who is generally employed within the setting. The fieldwork educator models the use of clinical reasoning strategies and provides a focus for skills to be learned, and the student observes and practices skills and performs tasks within an established OT role.
Role of the Fieldwork Educator
Model and facilitate student learning
There is a comprehensive orientation to site and learning objectives. Much emphasis is given to the practice of skills to be learned. Examples of typical learning experiences include the student observing the supervisor doing procedure, then trying parts of the procedure under direct supervision. The student will gradually carry out more of the evaluation and intervention process with supervision withdrawn as the student demonstrates increased competency in patient care and accepted level of skill through competency testing.
The supervisor identifies other learning opportunities within facility setting and models clinical reasoning skills through reflecting actions out loud. The supervisor also makes suggestions, asks questions or may use journaling to promote reflection and clinical reasoning.
There is regular review of student progress (at least weekly) which includes discussion of clinical issues, review of student performance: positive and constructive feedback, review of reflective journaling ( if required), and opportunity for the student to ask questions. Individualized learning objectives may be facilitated through the use of a learning contract.
Role of the Student
The student needs to understand the learning outcomes expected (learning objectives), practice and learn focused skills, and ask questions/seek clarification as needed.
The student will need to reflect on practice and emerging clinical reasoning skills and demonstrate increasing levels of competency in his/her direct work with clients. The student will gradually learn to seek out information from other sources and ultimately share ideas with fieldwork educator.
This approach is widely familiar and popular, and presumed effective to foster direct practice skills. One- on-one supervision supports student evaluation process and provides opportunity for role-modeling of practice. The strength of the student learning experience is directly related to the supervisory, teaching and practice skills of the assigned supervisor.
This approach may not foster innovation, critical thinking, or reflective practice. In addition, it may foster dependency. It is difficult to use with part-time staff. The strength of the student learning experience is directly related to the supervisory, teaching and practice skills of the assigned supervisor.
The Supervisor considers their department and facility as a broad learning environment and staff as key providers of support. The student will learn from the direct supervisor, other occupational therapy staff, and staff from other disciplines. They will also learn from OT peers, students from another discipline, or possibly students from another facility. (This model may occur in a role-established or a role emerging fieldwork site.
Role of the Fieldwork Educator
Model the co-construction of knowledge. The supervisor will guide and facilitate the development of questioning and clinical reasoning skills. Learning strategies which explore, question, research, interpret or solidify important knowledge are emphasized.
Advance preparation: The Fieldwork Coordinator for the facility identifies student support needs and learning opportunities within the facility and acts as liaison with the University. The coordinator delegates student preparation tasks to other OT staff members, members of other disciplines, experienced students etc. (For example, a series of in services on topics and techniques used in facility, setting up student notebook with time-frames, designated supervision times, student observation forms used by OT staff which correspond to student FWE). Orientation folders may include self-directed learning activities for student orientation. Attention is given to division of the supervisor’s caseload among the students.
Role of the Student
Students are encouraged to see out new knowledge and take responsibility for their own and each other’s learning. Ideally, they will develop mutual learning goals and interact to help one another accomplish a task. Students will provide feedback to one another and to their fieldwork coordinator/educator. They must learn to work together! Yet, they should be held accountable for their own share of the work. They need to continually reflect on their developing clinical skill and their ability to establish successful working relationships within their group. They must be prepared to make best use of supervision by bringing questions and case scenarios and asking for specific feedback on assignments as needed.
As part of their orientation, students often complete directed readings as to how the collaborative learning model works. If it occurs in a site without an OT, the site coordinator will orient students to basic policy and procedures of the site and will oversee a weekly schedule.
Initially, the supervisor may set up a weekly schedule of activities that include shadowing other professionals or learning to administer a particular assessment. A coordinated schedule of in-service activities may be offered by other OT staff or individuals from other disciplines. Students also plan learning opportunities within the time table provided, including scheduling of patients and setting up meetings with staff for joint treatment sessions. Reflective journaling is utilized to monitor and enhance the development of clinical reasoning skills (See additional handout). Students use individual pt case or unique experience to teach fellow students, using evidence to support their practices (this may be done in conjunction with in services provided by other staff).
The OT supervisor sets up a structure to evaluate the success of a practice activity, such as an assessment or intervention. The students provide feedback to one another following the structure provided. Information from these peer or self-evaluations is considered during individual supervision. During site visits, the OT fieldwork educator also directly observes student intervention with client’s and provides direct supervision.
During group supervision/ education sessions, the supervisor is responsive to questions, concerns, problems identified by students. Students are encouraged to articulate questions to direct the supervision session. Supervisors provide opportunities for students to process their experiences on an ongoing basis with attention to the development of cooperative skills. Group members should give feedback to one another and to supervisor, who gives feedback to the group as a whole and to individuals. Individual sessions include specific feedback on progress made toward attainment of learning objectives.
1:2– one fieldwork educator to two students.
2:1 – two fieldwork educators are sharing responsibility for one student.
Multiple sites – a model where one fieldwork educator has a group of students spread out at several fieldwork sites, usually all the same type of setting.
Interdisciplinary or Aggregate Model – Students are involved with learning with and from other disciplines and co-constructing knowledge of their professional role.
Opportunities for peer learning, support and discussion in addition to supervisor support. This approach fosters development of teamwork skills and independent learning skills such as reflective reasoning, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills. If gives more therapists opportunity to try on the educator role and affords increased exposure to new ideas and increased self-confidence for the student.
There may be less opportunity for the supervisor to monitor individual student progress and some students may not use peer learning opportunities optimally. This model is more difficult to apply in highly specialized practiced areas and with students who are struggling with competency issues. There is often a misunderstanding of the model and perception of workload increase on the part of supervisors.
Role Emerging/Independent Placement Model
Students are placed in a site without an occupational therapist. A member of the staff provides day to day supervision and a faculty staff member or a working therapist with expertise in the area undertakes formal weekly supervision. Although known as “role emerging”, the placement may not result in the development of a paid position.
Typically role emerging placements are identified as a result of faculty involvement in community development initiatives, students may identify a clinical or project interest, or an individual , organization, or government entity may contact the university to request a learning partnership.
Role of the Academic Fieldwork Coordinator
Once potential is identified, the Academic Fieldwork Coordinator (AFWC) contacts the agency to explore the learning partnership, outline requirements from both university and agency perspective. The needs of the setting and potential student roles/projects are outlined. The focus is on how an occupational therapist can augment and complement existing services provided in the setting. It is important that the OT student not be an additional resource to help carry out existing services. Attention is given by the AFWC to select appropriate students for the placement and students are often involved in the identification, negotiation and development of their placements.
Role of the Fieldwork Educator
Provide supervision and support to students through telephone contacts, daily journals, contact with on-site staff members and weekly seminars. Seminars might involve a debriefing period where student report on weekly activities and learning and discussion period revolving around readings on OT theory and application of theory to the site. Seminar topics might include core values, OT process in role emerging practice as compared to clinically focused practice, and exploring personal/professional progress.
The ACOTE Standards require that the fieldwork educator provide a minimum of eight hours per week at the site. In addition, the fieldwork educator must be easily accessible by a variety of means during the hours a student is at the site. Furthermore, the person serving as the fieldwork educator must have a minimum of three years’ experience after initial certification, as this is considered advanced supervision.
Role of the Site Educator
This individual will facilitate the student’s understanding of the service/agency, facilitate orientation and needs assessment, client referrals and program development. If the site is used repeatedly, this individual will take care of organizing resource materials developed by previous student cohorts, such as procedure manuals, information from relevant community sources, or samples of forms so that students can build off experiences of previous learners.
Typically students are placed in this site with another student, and so all elements of the collaborative learning model apply. Students will work collaboratively with others and independently come up with creative solutions to problems. They need to understand and be able to work within the consultative approach. The student must be comfortable working cooperatively with peers, and have a self-directed approach to learning. Student need to develop a plan to enable personal learning and be able to comprehend and participate in identifying the learning opportunities available including risks and benefits. The student will need to articulate potential linkages between OT philosophy, occupational behavior models and practice opportunities at the setting. They need to develop project management skills and engage in a continuous process of reflection.
Students have opportunity to learn beyond direct patient contact, to design and develop programs, manage resources, provide educational services, research treatment outcomes, obtain funding for services or advocate for clients on professional issues. Typically they will begin with a needs analysis of the site, and then proceed to develop a plan with initial goals and procedures that will help meet goals. The goals of the project may continue to be clarified with others as the project evolves. The student will recruit clients, staff, or fellow students to accomplish key tasks or to develop related skills to the project. The student will continually re-evaluate goals and progress towards goal attainment. This model has been used in such sites as a homeless shelter, refuge retention center, city library service, family education service, senior citizen center and other alternative sites.
Students are more independent and autonomous, resulting in increased professional growth. There is opportunity to develop and refine life-long learning and clinical reasoning skills, and to directly apply knowledge of occupational behavior models to practice. There is potential for the role for occupational therapy to emerge in the new setting; students experience expanded roles within the profession, gain opportunity to apply research evidence and knowledge of theory to practice and new ideas are shared.
There is typically not available someone to role model specific application of OT skills or clinical knowledge, and this can be a challenging placement for students with limited knowledge of the unique role of occupational therapy. There may be a lack of alignment between therapy models used at a site and an occupational therapy perspective and the set-up and monitoring process can be challenging.
Bartholomai, S. & Fitzgerald, C. (2007). The collaborative model of fieldwork education: Implementation of the model in a regional hospital rehabilitation setting. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 54, 23-30.
Blakely, C., Rigg, J., Joynson, K. & Oldfield, S. (2009) Supervision models in a 2:1 acute care placement. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 72, 515-517.
Bossers, A., Cook, J., Polatajko, H. & Laine, C. (1997). Understanding the role-emerging fieldwork placement. The Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64, 121 – 134.
Cohn, E., Dooley, N. & Simmons, L. ( 2001). Collaborative learning applied to fieldwork education. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 15, 69 – 83.
Fisher, A., & Savin-Baden, M., (2002). Modernising fieldwork, Part 2: Realising the new Agenda. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65, 275-282.
Friedland, J., Polatajko, H., Gage, M. (2001). Expanding the boundaries of occupational therapy practice through student fieldwork experiences: Description of a provincially-funded community development project. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68, 301 – 309.
Fortune, T., Farnworth, L., McKinstry, C. (2006). Project-focused fieldwork: Core business or fieldwork filler? Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 53, 233 – 236.
Flood, B., Haslam, L., & Hocking, C. (2010). Implementing a collaborative model of student supervision in New Zealand: Enhancing therapist and student experiences. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57, 22-26.
Heubner, J. & Tryssenaar, J. (1996). Development of an occupational therapy practice perspective in a homeless shelter: A fieldwork experience. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63, 24 – 32.
Hubbard, S. (2000). A case example of remote supervision. OT Practice, December, 16 – 19.
Huddleston, R. (1999). Clinical placements for the professions allied to medicine, Part 2: Placement Shortages? Two models that can solve the problem. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62, 213 – 219.
Martin, M., Morris, J., Moore, A., Sadlo, G., & Crouch, V. (2004). Evaluating practice education models in occupational therapy: Comparing 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 placements. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67, 192-200.
Moore, A., Morris, J., Crouch, V. & Martin, M. (2003). Evaluation of physiotherapy clinical educational models: Comparing 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 placements. Physiotherapy, 89 (8), 489-501.
Mulholland, S. & Derdall, M. (2005). A strategy for supervising occupational therapy students at community sites. Occupational Therapy International, 12, 28 – 43.
Musselman, L. (2007). Achieving AOTA’s centennial vision: The role of educators. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 21, 295 – 300.
Overton, (2009). A review of non-traditional occupational therapy practice placement education: A focus on role-emerging and project placements. The British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 72, 294 – 301.
Precin, P. (2007). An aggregate fieldwork model: Cooperative learning, research, and clinical project publication components. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 25, 62 – 82.
Precin, P. ( 2009). An aggregate fieldwork model: Interdisciplinary training/intervention component. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 21, 123 – 131.
Prigg, A. & Mackenzie, L. (2002). Project placements for undergraduate occupational therapy students: Design, implementation and evaluation. Occupational Therapy International, 9, 210 – 236.
Rodger, S., Thomas, W., Holley, S., Springfield, E., Edwards, A., Broadbridge, J., Greger, C., McBryde, C., Banks, RT. & Hawkins, R. (2009). Increasing the occupational therapy mental health workforce through innovative practice education: A pilot project. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 56, 409 – 417.
Sullivan, T. & Finlayson, M. (2000). Role-emerging fieldwork: The University of Manitoba approach. Occupational Therapy Now, 2, 13 – 24.
Thew, M., Edwards, M., Baptiste, S., & Molineux, M. (2011) Role emerging occupational therapy: Maximising occupation-focused practice. West Susex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell
Thomas, Y., Penman, M. & Williamson, P. (2005). Australian and New Zealand fieldwork: Charting the territory for future practice. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 52, 78 – 81.
Vogel, K., Grice, K., Hill, S. & Moddy, J. (2004). Supervisor and student expectations of Level II fieldwork. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 18, 5 – 19.
Wainwright, S. & McGinnis, P. (2009). Factors that influence the clinical decision-making of rehabilitation professionals in long-term care settings. Journal of Allied Health, 38, 143 – 151.
This template is designed to assist you in writing comprehensive fieldwork learning objectives for your facility. Fill in your site name, type of setting and then modify the document to suite your site. You may delete those listed objectives that are not reflective of your site requirements, and the items listed may help you to identify other objectives that are important, and that should be added. Once your modifications are complete, send the form to your affiliating university academic fieldwork coordinator! For UND, this is Deb Hanson at debra.hanson@UND.edu
The learning activities template represents suggestions that may be appropriate to support student learning across the continuum of the 12 week level II experience. It is NOT meant to be used in it’s entirety, but to use as a resource to stimulate ideas as you construct a weekly schedule suitable to your site and your learning objectives.
Weekly Meeting Form/Supervision Log
By Deb Hanson, University of North Dakota
One of the hallmarks of the effective fieldwork educator is the ability to provide a supportive learning environment for students. Students value opportunities to regularly exchange information with their supervisor. A regularly scheduled weekly meeting time to review expectations, clarify learning objectives and assignments is helpful to accomplish that exchange, especially in the busy clinical environment.
Weekly meetings can provide opportunity for regular feedback and reflection on the part of both the student and the supervising therapist. Keep in mind, however, that the weekly meeting should not become a ‘once a week status report’ but should be coupled with ongoing exchange in an environment where questions are welcomed and structure is adjusted as needed to support individual learning needs (Richard, 2008).
The format for the weekly supervision log can be simple, but should include the following elements:
- Date of session
- Summary of strengths and areas of need over the past week
- Feedback relating to strengths and needs is supported by notation of specific events in which the behavior was evident.
- Goals for upcoming week
- Plan for accomplishing goals
- Signature of supervisor and student
Weekly meetings might also include review of reflective journals or other notes kept by students to describe their learning experiences in view of targeted goals for a given week. The notes can serve as a record of student initiative for learning and help the student to focus efforts in preparation for supervisory sessions (Costa, 2007).
If weekly summaries of strengths and weaknesses include attention to each of the broad categories of the fieldwork evaluation form, (fundamentals of practice, evaluation and screening, intervention, management, communication, and professional behaviors) the supervisor and the student are both aware, throughout the fieldwork, of the progress made toward accomplishing learning objectives, thereby avoiding surprises at midterm or during the final evaluation. The weekly summaries also serve as a record of student strengths and learning needs and allow the supervisor to discern patterns of behavior in regard to both strengths and weaknesses. Occasionally, students who are experiencing difficulty may discount feedback provided or may not see the seriousness of ongoing need areas. Keeping a running document of feedback allows the student to discern patterns of behavior and thereby take responsibility for his or her own learning. In cases where student learning needs are not able to be resolved, the weekly meeting log serves as a record that due process was followed in regard to the student and the data will serve to limit supervisor liability in the event of a grievance or legal situation.
Costa, D. (2007). Clinical supervision in occupational therapy: A guide for fieldwork and practice. Bethesda, M.D.: American Occupational Therapy Association.
Richard, L. (2008). Exploring connections between theory and practice: Stories from fieldwork supervisors. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 24, 154 – 175.
Weekly Review Form
By: Deb Hanson, Ph.D., Academic Fieldwork Coordinator, University of North Dakota
A learning contract is established when the fieldwork educator and the student determine together the skills and knowledge to be learned, methods for achieving the learning, and the criteria for evaluating whether the learning has taken place. Although often used when remediation is required, the learning contract can also be invaluable in situations where the student is progressing as expected, or is achieving beyond the facility expectations (Costa, 2007).
The central feature of the learning contract is the focus that it provides for the fieldwork educator and the student to structure and organize the learning experience. Inherent to the use of a learning contract is the presumption that the learner has the capacity to direct their own learning using the educator as a resource (Matheson, 2003). Through the process of negotiating the contract, the learner takes responsibility for his or her learning thereby developing a sense of ownership and commitment to the plan.
Matheson (2003) suggests that the structure of a learning contract include:
- the name and position (student occupational therapist) of the individual undertaking the learning.
- identification of the learning objective ( ie what will the student be able to do if the plan is achieved? The learning objective will likely reflect one or more of the general objectives for learning established by the facility.
- (for each identified learning objective) identification of at least two strategies that the student will engage in to accomplish the objective.
- identification by the fieldwork educator of at least one supportive strategy that he/she will use to support the student in accomplishing each objective.
- an established criterion of performance for each objective. The criterion should be measurable and include reference to a deadline for objective achievement.
- the date the contract was established and/or revised, and the signature of all parties.
Whitcombe (2001) identifies the advantages of using learning contracts:
- Students develop ownership for learning
- Increased quality of student learning experiences
- Opportunity to focus on remediation of problem areas
- Enhanced communication and understanding between students and fieldwork educators
The success of the learning contract approach is closely associated with the role modeling and communication skills of the fieldwork educator. Typically, students will need support and encouragement to develop learning objectives. Although the fieldwork educator guides the process, joint decision making regarding the forming and evaluation of contract objectives will enhance learning outcomes and student investment in the learning process (Whitcombe, 2001). The student is expected to contribute to the process by identifying and attempting to resolve problems and by making use of all opportunities for learning. Ultimately, learning contracts can be a useful tool in fostering independent learning and self-evaluation skills.
Costa, D. (2007). Clinical supervision in occupational therapy: A guide for fieldwork and practice. Bethesda, M.D.: American Occupational Therapy Association.
Matheson, R. (2003) Promoting the integration of theory and practice by the use of a learning contract. International Journal of Therapy and rehabilitation, 10, 264 – 269.
Whitcombe, S. (2001) Using learning contracts in fieldwork education: The views of occupational therapy students and those responsible for their supervision. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64, 552 – 558.
Reflection in Practice
Critical reflection enables students to move along a continuum of acquisition of new knowledge, understanding, and then questioning existing assumptions, values, and perspectives ( Bonello, 2001). Through reflective practices professionals are able to recognize pertinent data relative to a case, interpret cues, and generate hypotheses as to treatment strategy ( Berner, 1984).
Williams et al ( 2000) (as cited in Costa, 2004) suggests a format for reflection including the following elements:
- Describe the learning event or situation, as well as prior knowledge, feelings, and attitudes and current knowledge, feelings and attitudes. This description answers the question “What happened?”
- What is your personal reaction to the learning event, issue or situation?
- Did the learning event/issue/situation change your prior knowledge, feelings or attitudes? What is the value of the learning event, issue or situation ie how has it challenged your prior thinking?
- What is your new understanding of the event, issue or situation?
- How might this effect your future behavior? For example, how might it help you to clarify an issue? develop a skill? Resolve a problem or conflict? How will you approach similar events, issues, situations in the future?
Focus Areas for Reflective Writing
1. Identify and evaluate client response to treatment sessions.
- Before, during or following treatment sessions
- Revise plan to include new perspectives
2. Identify and explore theoretical concepts
- Identify theoretical concepts in a particular frame of reference
- Analyze these components for their value in the treatment of a particular client
- Compare relative value of divergent approaches
- Blend two elements together to form unique approach or
- Identify preferred theoretical approach recognizing individual personality of client and therapist professional interests.
3. Recognize the impact of context on practice
- Describe the contest of the practice setting and the impact on a specific clinical decision.
- Identify the influence of the clinical setting context on the occupational behavior of the client.
- Design treatment interventions to consciously consider context to engage the client in the treatment process
4. Promote student self-assessment
- Students might reflect on personal and professional presentation.
- Identify clinical competencies in assessment, treatment planning and treatment implementation
- Develop standards for performance
- Develop specific learning objectives
5. Recognize and support ethical behavior
- Review the code of ethics and identify how specific concepts can be applied within a particular treatment setting
- Analyze those concepts most difficult to apply; develop a plan for application
6. Support evidence-based practice
- Choose an intervention common to the treatment of a particular diagnoses within the setting.
- Locate 3 articles which support the approach and summarize the evidence.
- Evaluate the strength of the evidence for application to a particular client.
- Identify 1 or 2 alternative interventions and search for evidence to support their use.
- Choose between intervention possibilities considering elements of the treatment context and the unique needs of the client
- Over time, pool evidence to create a treatment protocol for a particular client population.
Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.
Bonello, M. (2001). Fieldwork within the context of higher education: A literature review. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64, 93-99.
Costa, D. (2007). Clinical supervision in occupational therapy: A guide for fieldwork and practice. AOTA Press: Bethesda, M D.
Williams, R., Sundelin, G., Foster-Sargeant, E., & Norman, G. (2000). Assessing the reliability of grading reflective journal writing. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 14 (2).
Bossers, A., Bezzina, M., Hobson, S., Kinsella, A., MacPhail, A., Scurr, S., Moosa, T., Rolleman, L., Ferguson, K., DeLuca, S., Macnab, J., & Jenkins, K. (2007). Preceptor Education Program for Health Professionals and Students (PEP). The University of Western Ontario: Ontario, Canada Available at: http://www.preceptor.ca
Kassam, R., Drynan, D., MacLeod, E., Neufeld, L., & Tidball, G. Strategies for Resolving Conflict. In E-Tips for Practice Education. Retrieved 2/1/09 from: http://www.practiceeducation.ca
Occupational Therapy Outreach Development Team. (2004). Models of fieldwork. School of Medical Rehabilitation, University of Manitoba. Retrieved 11/24/08 from: http://www.umanitoba.ca/medrehab
Marsh, S., Cooper, K., Jordan, G., Merrett, S., Scammell, J., & Clark, V. (2004). Managing Failing Students in Practice. Retrieved 9/30/08 from: http://www.practicebasedlearning.org/resources/materials/docs/Failing%20Students.
Herkt, J. (2005). Exploring the Supervision of Occupational Therapists in New Zealand. Retrieved 8/26/07 from: http://aut.researchgateway.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10292/15/HerktJ.pdf?sequence=1
ClinEdAus: Enabling Clinical Education Skills. This website offers comprehensive information regarding many aspects of fieldwork education. Various core clinical education skills are addressed including assessment of students, communication, facilitating learning, managing difficult situations, providing feedback and facilitating clinical reasoning. Resources are also developed for specific challenges one might encounter in diverse environments, such as rural or private practice. A separate section on preparing for and managing placement offers information on placement models, supervision approaches and tips for preparation of students. http://www.clinedaus.org.au/
Petrozelle, D., Iscrupe, R., Framework for Fieldwork Making the Most of Student-Educator Collaboration. OT Practice 16-20
Hanson, D., Graves, C. (2016) Creating a High-Quality Fieldwork Experience What the Best Fieldwork Educators Do. OT Practice 23-24
Hanson, D., Larsen J., Nielsen S. (2011) Reflective Writing in Level II Fieldwork: A Tool to promote Clinical Reasoning. OT Practice 11-15