- Define a need for new or continued research in an area of interest.
- Develop questions that a study may answer.
- See Article on Writing
- Explain the general problem or describe the need.
- Describe previous studies.
- Review what is known about topic from prior studies
- Draw generalizations from the literature
- State the purpose and research problem/questions (hypothesis).
- Often last paragraph in the Introduction section
- Provide rationale for the study
- Explain what was done.
- Allows reader to judge the validity of the study & its findings
- Allow for independent replication of the study.
- Description of research design
- Delimitations regarding selection of subjects or collection of data
- Describe participants of the study
- How subjects were selected
- What instrumentation was used
- What measurements or observations were made
- Describe how study data were analyzed and reported
- Begin with an overview of only relevant data using research questions as a guide.
- Not necessary to review all data collected
- Do not present data if it does not relate directly to answering the research questions.
- Include specific findings.
- State data as facts without interpretation.
- Tables and figures should stand alone; no narrative is needed to interpret results.
- Use tables for data too lengthy for clarity
- Should supplement, not duplicate, the text
- Concise statements of findings.
- Facts presented previously as results are interpreted, along with any identified relationships.
- Describe meaning and implications of the study findings
- Relate findings to earlier cited literature
- Compare and contrast with findings of others to highlight areas of support and conflict.
- Generalize results to the larger population of interest.
- Describe any limitations or biases that may have affected study outcomes.
- Suggest issues for further research.
- Draw conclusions about the topic of focus.
- Gabel, Lawrence(1991, Feb). Research Process: Reporting Results of the Research. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. V81, n2, p.93-97.
- Hitchcock, Maurice (1988, Fall/Winter). Writing and Publishing Research Articles. Family Practice Research Journal. V8, n1, p.3-16.
- Coleridge, Samuel (1993, Sept). Teaching residents to write a research paper. JAOA. V93, n9, p.936-940.